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Beverley Anderson
British Journal of Nursing, Vol. 22, Iss. 11, 13 Jun 2013, pp 628

About 10 000 people are diagnosed with bladder cancer in the UK every year; transitional cell carcinomas (TCCs) represent 90% of bladder cancers. Less common types include squamous cell carcinoma (8%) and adenocarcinoma (2%). About 70-85% of TCCs are superficial (stages Ta, T1, carcinoma in situ (CIS)) at presentation and are commonly termed non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). CIS is regarded as high risk early bladder cancer; untreated, it is likely to spread to the deeper layers of the bladder (Cancer Research UK (CRUK), 2013). Invasive bladder cancer (stage T2/T3)
has grown and spread beyond the inner lining
of the bladder wall, and stage T4 has spread outside the bladder, affecting organs such as the lymph nodes, liver or lungs (Action on Bladder Cancer (ABC, 2013, CRUK, 2013).

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