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Marlene E McHugh, Debbie Miller-Saultz, Elsa Wuhrman, Boleslav Kosharskyy
International Journal of Palliative Nursing, Vol. 18, Iss. 9, 27 Sep 2012, pp 426 - 433

For the majority of patients, cancer pain can be treated using the World Health Organization cancer pain guidelines; however, for 10-20% of patients with advanced cancer, adequate pain control cannot be achieved using these methods owing to disease pathophysiology preventing administration/absorption of pain medications or intolerance due to opioid toxicities. The need to expand analgesic treatment when oral, transdermal, and intravenous therapies fail requires exploration of interventional pain management techniques such as neuraxial (e.g. epidural and intrathecal) infusion therapies and neurolytic interventions. Nurses caring for patients with cancer pain should develop their knowledge of these multimodal approaches to cancer pain management.

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